Friday, March 18, 2011



        Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).
        Neurobehavioral disorder comes under DSH4 classification.

·        Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity impulsivity categories.

·        Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.

·        The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.

·        Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.

·        Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. 

·     Most children have the combined type of ADHD.

        Treatments can relieve many of the disorder's symptoms, but there is no cure. With treatment, most people with ADHD can be successful in school and lead productive lives. Researchers are developing more effective treatments and interventions, and using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.
        3-4 times common in males  5 to 12 years.

Symptoms of ADHD in children
        Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:

·        Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another 

·        Have difficulty focusing on one thing 

·        Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable 

·        Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new 

·        Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities 

·        Not seem to listen when spoken to 

·        Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly 

·        Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others 

·        Struggle to follow instructions.

Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:

1.  Fidget and squirm in their seats
2.  Talk nonstop
3.  Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
4.  Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
5.  Be constantly in motion
6.  Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
1.  Be very impatient
2.  Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
3.  Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
4.  Often interrupt conversations or others' activities.


        Parents and teachers can miss the fact that children with symptoms of inattention have the disorder because they are often quiet and less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work, but they are often not paying attention to what they are doing. They may get along well with other children, compared with those with the other subtypes, who tend to have social problems. But children with the inattentive kind of ADHD are not the only ones whose disorders can be missed. For example, adults may think that children with the hyperactive and impulsive subtypes just have emotional or disciplinary problems.

        Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD.
        Genes. Inherited from our parents, genes are the "blueprints" for who we are. Results from several international studies of twins show that ADHD often runs in families. Researchers are looking at several genes that may make people more likely to develop the disorder. Knowing the genes involved may one day help researchers prevent the disorder before symptoms develop. Learning about specific genes could also lead to better treatments. Defect in dopamine transporter (D4 receptor gene) and human thyroid β gene.
        Children with ADHD who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention. This NIMH research showed that the difference was not permanent, however, and as children with this gene grew up, the brain developed to a normal level of thickness. Their ADHD symptoms also improved.
        Environmental factors. Studies suggest a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children. In addition, preschoolers who are exposed to high levels of lead, which can sometimes be found in plumbing fixtures or paint in old buildings, may have a higher risk of developing ADHD.
        Brain injuries. Children who have suffered a brain injury may show some behaviors similar to those of ADHD. However, only a small percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury.
        Sugar. The idea that refined sugar causes ADHD or makes symptoms worse is popular, but more research discounts this theory than supports it. In one study, researchers gave children foods containing either sugar or a sugar substitute every other day. The children who received sugar showed no different behavior or learning capabilities than those who received the sugar substitute.Another study in which children were given higher than average amounts of sugar or sugar substitutes showed similar results.
        In another study, children who were considered sugar-sensitive by their mothers were given the sugar substitute aspartame, also known as Nutrasweet. Although all the children got aspartame, half their mothers were told their children were given sugar, and the other half were told their children were given aspartame. The mothers who thought their children had gotten sugar rated them as more hyperactive than the other children and were more critical of their behavior, compared to mothers who thought their children received aspartame.
        Food additives. Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and an increase in activity.11 Research is under way to confirm the findings and to learn more about how food additives may affect hyperactivity.

        Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for ADHD. ADHD symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, and because symptoms vary from person to person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose.
        Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems constantly "out of control." Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently "spaces out" in the classroom or on the playground.
        No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child's pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as ADHD.
         The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD.

Between them, the referring pediatrician and specialist will determine if a child:
1.  Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions
2.  Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
3.  Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
4.  Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
5.  Has any learning disabilities
6.  Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
7.  Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent's job loss.
        A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child's home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child's parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.

The specialist also will ask:
1.  Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child's life?
2.  Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child's peers?
3.  Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
4.  Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?

        The specialist pays close attention to the child's behavior during different situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure. Others would require the child to keep paying attention. Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment.
        A child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see if he or she has a learning disability.
        Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for ADHD, he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder.

        Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.
        A list of medications and the approved age for use follows. ADHD can be diagnosed and medications prescribed by M.D.s (usually a psychiatrist) and in some states also by clinical psychologists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and advanced psychiatric nurse specialists. Check with your state's licensing agency for specifics.
Trade Name
Generic Name
Approved Age
3 and older
Adderall XR
amphetamine (extended release)
6 and older
methylphenidate (long acting)
6 and older
methylphenidate patch
6 and older
methamphetamine hydrochloride
6 and older
3 and older
3 and older
6 and older
Focalin XR
dexmethylphenidate (extended release)
6 and older
Metadate ER
methylphenidate (extended release)
6 and older
Metadate CD
methylphenidate (extended release)
6 and older
methylphenidate (oral solution and chewable tablets)
6 and older
6 and older
Ritalin SR
methylphenidate (extended release)
6 and older
Ritalin LA
methylphenidate (long acting)
6 and older
6 and older
lisdexamfetamine dimesylate
6 and older

        Different types of psychotherapy are used for ADHD. Behavioral therapy aims to help a child change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events.
        Behavioral therapy also teaches a child how to monitor his or her own behavior. Learning to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting, is another goal of behavioral therapy.
         Parents and teachers also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors. In addition, clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines can help a child control his or her behavior.
        Therapists may teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing. Learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.
How can parents help?
        Children with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents and teachers to reach their full potential and to succeed in school. Before a child is diagnosed, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family. Parents and children may need special help to overcome bad feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it impacts a family. They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.
        Parenting skills training helps parents learn how to use a system of rewards and consequences to change a child's behavior. Parents are taught to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage, and ignore or redirect behaviors they want to discourage. In some cases, the use of "time-outs" may be used when the child's behavior gets out of control. In a time-out, the child is removed from the upsetting situation and sits alone for a short time to calm down.
        Parents are also encouraged to share a pleasant or relaxing activity with the child, to notice and point out what the child does well, and to praise the child's strengths and abilities. They may also learn to structure situations in more positive ways. For example, they may restrict the number of playmates to one or two, so that their child does not become over stimulated. Or, if the child has trouble completing tasks, parents can help their child divide large tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. Also, parents may benefit from learning stress-management techniques to increase their own ability to deal with frustration, so that they can respond calmly to their child's behavior.
        Sometimes, the whole family may need therapy. Therapists can help family members find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors and to encourage behavior changes. Finally, support groups help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often meet regularly to share frustrations and successes, to exchange information about recommended specialists and strategies, and to talk with experts.
Tips to Help Kids Stay Organized and Follow Directions
        Schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include time for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or on a bulletin board in the kitchen. Write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible.
        Organize everyday items. Have a place for everything, and keep everything in its place. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.
Use homework and notebook organizers. Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home the necessary books.
Be clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.
Give praise or rewards when rules are followed. Children with ADHD often receive and expect criticism. Look for good behavior, and praise it.
What conditions can coexist with ADHD?
        Some children with ADHD also have other illnesses or conditions. For example, they may have one or more of the following:
1.  A learning disability. A child in preschool with a learning disability may have difficulty understanding certain sounds or words or have problems expressing himself or herself in words. A school-aged child may struggle with reading, spelling, writing, and math.

2.  Oppositional defiant disorder. Kids with this condition, in which a child is overly stubborn or rebellious, often argue with adults and refuse to obey rules.

3.  Conduct disorder. This condition includes behaviors in which the child may lie, steal, fight, or bully others. He or she may destroy property, break into homes, or carry or use weapons. These children or teens are also at a higher risk of using illegal substances. Kids with conduct disorder are at risk of getting into trouble at school or with the police.

4.  Anxiety and depression. Treating ADHD may help to decrease anxiety or some forms of depression.

5.  Bipolar disorder. Some children with ADHD may also have this condition in which extreme mood swings go from mania (an extremely high elevated mood) to depression in short periods of time.

6.  Tourette syndrome. Very few children have this brain disorder, but among those who do, many also have ADHD. Some people with Tourette syndrome have nervous tics and repetitive mannerisms, such as eye blinks, facial twitches, or grimacing. Others clear their throats, snort, or sniff frequently, or bark out words inappropriately. These behaviors can be controlled with medication.
        ADHD also may coexist with a sleep disorder, bed-wetting, substance abuse, or other disorders or illnesses.


RUBRIC           :       gestures
SUB RUBRIC   :       clapping the hands
2 marks           :       belladona, stramonium

RUBRIC           :       Gestures
SUB RUBRIC   :       Grasping bystanders, at
3 Marks           :       ANT-T.
1 Mark             :       ars., bell., phos.,
RUBRIC           :       Gestures
SUB RUBRIC   :       Indicates his desire by
2 Mark             :       stram.,

RUBRIC           :       Gestures
SUB RUBRIC   :       Automatic
1 Mark             :       anac., calc., cann-i., hell., hyos., nux-m.,
                                phos., tab., zinc.,

RUBRIC           :       Hyperactive children
3 Marks           :       CARC., HYOS., MED., STRAM., TUB.,
2 Marks           :       ars., cina., iod., tarent., verat.,
1 Mark             :       anac., calc-p., coff., nux-v., thuj.,

RUBRIC           :       CONCENTRATION
SUB RUBRIC   :       Difficult
SUB RUBRIC   :       Children in,
3Marks            :       BAR.C.,
2 Marks           :       aethu., phos.,
3 Marks           :       am-c., graph.,lach., ph-ac., sil., zinc.,


SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Heedless
2 Marks           :       Alum., Anac., Bell., Caust.,cham., Gels.,
                                Hell., Hyos.,Lach., Lyc., Merc., Nux-v., Op.,
1 mark             :       bies-c., agar., agn.m ail., alum-p., am-c.
                                Ambr., amphet-s.,apis.,asaf., aur-m., bov.,
                                Calad., cann-i., cann-s., canth., carl., cic.,
                                Clem., coff., croc., cupr.,daph., euon., ham.,
                                Ign., ind., kali-c., kali-sil., laur., m-arct.,
                                Nux-c., plat., puls., rhod., rhus-t., rib-ac.,
                                ruta., sabad.,sep., sil., spig., staph., tarax.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Mental exertion
Sub rubric       :       impossible
3 Marks           :       Nat-c
2 marks           :       Alum., Ambr.,Anac., Arg-met., Bapt.,
                                Calc.,Carb-v.,Con.,Ferr., Gels.,Hell.,Kali-br.,
1 Mark             :       acon., agar.,am-c.,ammc.,anh.,arn.,ars.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Forgetful
3Marks            :       Ambr.,Anac.,Bar-c.,Both.,Carbn-s.,Cocc.,
2Marks            :       Acon.,Aeth.,Agn.,Alum.,Anh.,Arg-n.,Arn.,
1Mark              :       abot.,absin.,acet-ac.,agar.,ail.,alum.,am-c.,
                                bapt.,bar-ac.,brom.,bry.,borx.,camph., carc.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Loquacity          
3 Marks           :       Lach., Dulc.,Hyos.,Ran-b.,Stram.
2 Marks           :       Arg-met., Aur., Bell., Camph., Cann-i., Carl.,
                                Cimic., Cocc., Croc., Crot-c., cupr., Gels.,
                                Lachn., Mosch., Mur-ac., Nat-c., Op., Par.,
                                Phos., Pyrog., Verat.,
1 Mark             :       abrot., acon., agar., agn., aloe., alum.,am-c.,
                                arn., ars., bapt., bar-c., bar-i., borx., bov.,
                                bry.,calad., calc., caust., cham., chin.,chel.,
                                graph., ign., kali-c., onos., parth., ph-ac.,
                                stap.,sulph., tab., tarax., zinc.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Gestures
SUBRUBRIC    :       Repeating the same action
3Marks            :       verat.,
2 Marks           :       Syph., zinc.,
1Marks            :       Chen-a., lach., plat., tub.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Libertinism
4Marks            :       MORPH.,
3 Marks           :       op.,
2 Marks           :       syph., verat.,
1 Mark             :       alco., arg-met., arg-n., calc., calc-p., carb-v.,
                                Coca., lyc., med., merc., nux-v., plat., sep.,
                                Sil.,staph., sulph., tarent., thuj.,

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Self – esteem
SUBRUBRIC    :       Low(see confidence- want)
4 Marks           :       BAR-C.,
3 Marks           :       Anac.,sil.,
2 Marks           :       Am-br., Aur., Bry., Calc-p.,Bry., Calc-p.,
                                Carc.,Chin., Kali-c., Kali-sil., Med., Pall.,
                                Petr., Puls., Rhus-t.,
1 Mark             :       agn., aloe., alum., ambr., anan., ang., ars.,
                                Bell., calc., canth., con., dros., graph.,
                                hyos., ign.,lach., mag-m., op., ruta., sumb.,
                                thuj., tub., verb., zinc.

SECTION         :       MIND
RUBRIC           :       Disorganied( chaotic)
2Marks            :       Ars., Bell.,Merc.,Ph-ac.,Phos.,Rhod.,Seneg.,
1Mark              :       agar., am-c., anac., bry., euphr., ip., lach.,
                                mag-m., mex., nat-c., nux-v., puls., rhus-t.,
                                stram.,sul-ac., sulph., syph., thuj., zinc.

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